The Benefits of a Masters in Criminal Justice

The criminal justice (CJ) system in the United States changed after September 11, 2001. The tragedy of that day changed our thoughts about national security and the way we handle crime in this country. The CJ world extends far beyond the borders of the country to prevent another tragedy like this from occurring ever again.

Law enforcement agencies exist on the local, federal and state level that are all concerned with homeland security problems and issues. The same principles that are used at the federal level also are used in local law enforcement agencies. A degree in criminal law can help those who want their career in these fields advance and grow. The CJ field is an exciting one, but there are some stresses physically and emotionally.

One of the most intriguing aspects of criminal law is the social aspect of the job. Law enforcement is not just interested in apprehending suspects and prosecuting criminals, but also in finding out what causes the behavior to occur. When these aspects are better understood, crime can be prevented instead of solved.

A major in criminal justice will explore all aspects of the justice system including the legal, scientific and crime fighting techniques. There is plenty to explore in this rich and interesting field such as forensics, psychology and legal careers. One of the main philosophies of CJ is that if we can understand why crime occurs, we are better able to take steps to control it and prevent it from occurring again in the future. The criminal justice system can also be better equipped to handle the rehabilitation of offenders.

A person who receives an education in CJ will receive training in statistics, the legal system, criminology, research techniques and substance abuse issues, which all help the student learn about crime and why it occurs. These are just a few examples of the kinds of material learned in a criminal justice degree program.

A degree in criminal justice usually encompasses an education in law, criminology and other public policy issues. Those with a masters degree in the field generally learn the sociological aspect of criminal law and even some work in political science. Those who advance with a higher degree in criminal justice can work as a detective, police officer or even probations. The methods of advancement in this field largely depend on how much experience and the various skills that are acquired while working in the field.

The school where you obtain your degree in criminal justice is just as important as the subjects that are studied. The school must be an accredited school that offers a rounded education in criminal law.

Is a Criminal Justice Degree Worth its Weight?

A degree in Criminal Justice is frequently a good option for those who’ve a strong passion for law enforcement and justice. If you’ve ever imagined your self at a crime scene, solving a situation by putting together all the crucial pieces, a Legal Justice degree can get your foot within the door. Those that are currently working in law enforcement can use a level to get promotions or for professional growth.

When choosing a university, consider on the internet course. Online Criminal Justice applications fit your schedule and permit you to compete the coursework at home. Brick and mortar schools, about the other hand, supply an chance to create local contacts. This could lead to employment at that local department.

Consider your course choices when searching to get a college. Some choices consist of: Legal Justice Investigation and Statistics; Information Analysis for Social Scientists; Forensics; Crime Scene Investigation; and Applied Investigation Techniques. Electives should be chosen as well. Some of these include: the Supreme Court; Capital Punishment; White Collar Crime; Victimology; Sociology of Deviance; Drugs and Society; Sociology of Law; Juvenile Delinquency; Race and Ethnic Relations; and Computer Forensics.

PC forensics involves the preservation, investigation, compilation, and presentation of evidence of PC crimes. Computer forensic investigators look for to explain the present condition of digital artifacts. These usually consist of computer systems, media storage, electronic documents, or packets that travel over a digital network.

Other required coursework might consist of: Legal Aspects of Legal Justice; Law Enforcement and Community; Public Administration and Policy Producing; Crime Scene Analysis; and American Legal Process. These programs assist you to prepare for a career as a correctional treatment specialist, police officer, detective, and even an FBI agent.

Beneath are a few of the colleges that provide the best Legal Justice degrees. A level from any of these will nearly guarantee a job.

Akron College offers small class sizes and individual attention. You are able to find flexible schedules and an education that’s career-oriented.

Miami-Jacobs Job University focuses on offering probably the most up-to-date courses. They care about the success of each of their students.

Argosy University’s degree in Criminal Justice provides a vast range of opportunities to individuals that are interested. It’s an excellent option for all those with time constraints simply because of the flexibility of their programs. The degrees that are offered consist of: B.A. in Psychology-Criminal Justice; B.S. in Legal Justice; and M.B.A. in Public Administration. Individuals seeking a level having a bigger emphasis on administration in Legal Justice ought to consider a B.A. in Organizational Management having a concentration in Criminal Justice. This will prepare you to structure, handle, and direct public and private criminal justice companies.

Ashford University on the internet level programs are designed for working professionals. You can study at your personal pace and graduate in 12 to 24 months.

Everest College focuses on hands-on training. This kind of training enables graduates to obtain a head start in the work force.

Liberty University offers an Associate of Arts Bachelors of Science in Legal Justice. Like other colleges, they offer courses where you’ll learn about trial proceedings, constitutional concepts, and criminal case law. Being a graduate of police training, you may be hired in advanced positions inside police departments or other law enforcement companies.

A Health Care Attorney Serves Both Medical and Legal Purposes

Today, a health care attorney is incorporated into the law and regulation compliance in nearly every hospital and healthcare administration. Understanding the healthcare insurance side of management is essential, since there are several differences in the amount of coverage provided by private insurance policies. Costs also present major differences to many people, like in public health insurance programs, which are typically the main source of coverage for most elderly and disabled persons. This programs aid disabled persons and those people with unstable or low incomes.

A health care attorney or health care lawyer are professionals who are usually consulted to protect the practices of various medical personnel including doctors, nurses, dentists, veterinarians and other healthcare experts. Because of the variations and some deviations in several laws of medical practices, a great number of medical professionals have been affected by acts of slander. These health care lawyers will protect the medical license and the reputation of many professionals in similar situation. Thus, they are established.

Correspondingly, a health care attorney provides significant advice, especially when a certain patient is a victim of abuse or medical malpractice. For those people who suffered terrible injuries and illness from an incorrect and improper medical professional, this is the best way to get retribution. Furthermore, medical malpractice can cause permanent and long term damage to the body of patients. In most cases, victims frequently want justice for this malpractice.

On the other hand, health care is a controversial issue that arouses many debates and other misgivings. For medical professionals, a tarnished reputation and the loss of a license are very serious matters, that’s why most of them are now establishing many strict guidelines and rules to avoid any risk in their respective careers. On the contrary, the patients who had become victims from malpractice, can never return the amount of time, money, and suffering they endured, so they now demonstrate extra caution in choosing reputable hospitals and physicians. Thus, medical attorneys are necessary in their lives, since they stand on both sides of the issues aiding those who are in need.

Additionally, health care lawyers also offer guidance to various providers in the best ways to administer medical services properly in accord to health care law. Representation in cases of malpractice are taken care of as well, by interviews and effective questions, which will give people great satisfaction that they’re concerns are taken care of. Furthermore, these lawyers are have multiple licenses to practice in their respective states, and can petition the courts of the state in which they are working. However, the more advice they receive from other people, the more risk that will come up regarding health issues, thus seeking professional defense is the best option.

Furthermore, these medical lawyers also use paralegals and other attorneys in handling simpler legal tasks related to a particular case. For those people with health care concerns similar to the this case, there is eligibility to receive discount rates. Moreover, they also provide advice to medical professionals who are incorporated into National Health System, which is a component of the available government medical coverage. Additionally, these lawyers have minimal requirement for clients.

Differences Between a Paralegal and Legal Assistant

Most of us think that legal assistants and paralegals are the same but actually there is a difference between the two. Although a Paralegal may also be known as a Legal Assistant, in some geographical areas, there is a difference between the two.

No matter what, Paralegals and Legal Assistants are different in terms of their job titles. The Paralegal is more involved in legal research and actual casework as compared to a Legal Assistant. Paralegals may be involved in the drafting of legal documents which demands more research and background knowledge. Private organizations hiring Paralegals often prefer those who have background in political science or law to help them in research and trial preparation.

Legal Assistants are often involved in managing the administrative tasks that are required by the Paralegals and lawyers. For instance, Legal Assistants may be in charge of maintaining precise trial records and research or to make sure that all the court filing needs are successfully met. The people working as Legal Assistants mainly have a clerical or secretarial background, as the capabilities of maintaining precise records and supporting multiple people are indispensable.

The differences between a Paralegal and a Legal Assistant lie mainly in the kind of work they perform. A working Paralegal is able to earn around $35000 to $50000 a year. The salary range may vary according to the location and experience of an individual. The experienced Paralegals living in metropolitan cities enjoy a higher pay scale. Also, the Paralegals can improve their salary by earning the certified paralegal credentials program certificate. The certificate adds to both qualification and knowledge of a paralegal.

In spite of the differences in job duties between a paralegal and a legal assistant, the salaries earned by both are quite similar. The salary of a legal assistant basically depends on the kind of job duties assigned and the location of work. The legal assistants also have an opportunity to improve their salary outlook by earning various certifications like certified legal assistant program through NALA.

Despite of the job title you pursue, it is vital to keep yourself aware of the different demands of each title. Legal Assistants and Paralegals have to work in a high pressure environment as most of them are employed either in government agencies or private law organizations. It is a great field to make handsome money and social status if you are comfortable working in such situations.

Justice and SEC Clamping Down on Corrupt Practices – Beware of the Conduct of Strategic Partners

Today’s state of affairs for private equity sponsors in the arenas of public relations and politics is challenging at best, and a private equity sponsor who is exposing itself to corruption or corrupt partners are inviting criticism and worse. Private equity firms should be aware of actions the U.S. Department of Justice (“DOJ”) and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) have taken recently under the 1977 U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”). They should also consider their potential of becoming a target of this Act early in any dealings. Of special note is the settlement in General Electric’s recent purchase of the oil and gas services company Vetco International. Alberto Gonzales, U.S. Attorney General, made obvious that enforcement of FCPA is a top priority and will remain so.

FCPA risk assessment is challenging in M&A deals due to the extensive FCPA reach. Identification and of FCPA-related exposures and evaluation of the risk should be an requirement of any due diligence in a multinational M&A deal–there will be severe consequences of exposures that arise from receiving or selling assets that will cause a benefit from corrupt practices, and a private equity sponsor should make evaluation of this risk paramount.

Statute History

In the 1970s, many U.S. companies (which included many Fortune 500 companies), disclosed the practice of making large and substantial “questionable payments” to foreign officials. These officials included politicians, parties, and more. Amendments to the U.S. securities laws that prohibited bribing non-U.S. officials, required U.S. issuer’s records show accurate details of of the company’s asset disposition, and required accounting methods with controls built in to thwart bribery and other corrupt practices was enacted by the U.S. Congress.

FCPA Anti-Bribery Provisions

To offer payment or benefits to a non-U.S. government official in exchange for business advantages or other favors is a crime under the FCPA. The standard is “knowing,” and avoiding information that would alert a responsible person to think that there is bribery indicates liability. This applies to the activity of employees and subsidiaries, as well as brokers, agents, distributors, partners, and intermediaries like travel agents and law firms.

A person covered under FCPA who avoids the knowledge that an intermediary such as a distributor ahs paid or will pay a bribe to a non-U.S. official is subject to the same kind of prosecution as a company that avoids knowledge of employees who make those payments and promises.

A foreign official, according to the statute, is anyone who is employed by a non-U.S. government entity full time or part time. This includes employees of corporations owned by a state, civil servants, municipal governments, provincial governments, and educational entities owned by a government. The term also includes any candidates for public office, employees of some international organizations (including the EU, UN, and OAS), political parties and their officials, African development banks, Asian development banks, the International Committee of the Red Cross, and the WHO.

Any benefit conferred may be viewed as a trigger for the statute’s provisions by U.S. regulators, according the FCPA. Payments to relatives are included in these triggers, including travel benefits for an official’s family members, contributions to officials’ charities, etc.

The requirements and provisions for the statute apply to anyone who ussues a registered security, including ADRs on a stock exchange. They also apply to corporations that reside in the U.S. or have a principal office and place of business in the U.S., a U.S. citizen or resident including holders of green cards serving anyplace in the world, and any others performing acts that will touch U.S. concerns. Almost anything that is concerned with the U.S. can set off jurisdiction by the U.S.

Provisions for Internal Controls

FCPA’s record keeping provisions and accounting guidelines were written to deal with the SEC-registered corporations’ ways of disguising and hiding payments and bribes, such as listing those bribes as consulting expenses or travel costs of non-U.S. officials.

There are two regulations the FCPA rules impose on books and record keeping.

1. Any company with registered U.S. securities must make and maintain records, books, and accounts that accurately and reasonably reflect the details of all transactions and disposition of the property and assets of the company.

2. The company must also create and maintain internal accounting systems that have sufficient controls to assure officials that all transactions are within the authorization of management, and that recording is done within “generally accepted accounting principles.” Although there are no penalties for violations that are technical, inadvertent, or insignificant, willful concealment of any form of misconduct by altering the books and records is a violation of FCPA.

An interesting feature of these provisions is that in the case of a civil liability, the parent company does not need to have any knowledge or suspicion specifically that the books or records contain misleading information. The appearance of the innocence of the bribery alone is enough to bring FCPA regulations to bear even if the parent company has no knowledge of the actions. The parent company is also liable for any failures of its subsidiaries for internal control.

The FCPA does not have a threshold of “materiality” for record keeping, books, and internal controls. Even though the records and books only need to be “reasonable,” Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act doesn’t apply so the resulting inaccuracies from less diligent control can bring the regulations to bear, especially if there is bribery involved.

FCPA Enforcement

Many U.S. and foreign companies are becoming aware of the results of not complying with the FCPA. These are serious and have a huge impact on these companies, thereby raising the alert systems of businesses that may be affected by FCPA actions. The DOJ imposes fines and orders of disgoregement that sometimes exceed tens of millions of U.S. dollars, and can also include fines for criminal activity. Recently the Titan Corporation paid more than $28 million as a punishment for corrupt payments that surfaced during its merger with Lockheed. Three of Vetco’s subsidiaries plead guilty to and a fourth entered a deferred prosecution agreement; the fines were $26 million and was the largest in the history of the FCPA.

The investing public will view criminal convictions of a U.S. registered corporation negatively, and there could be a host of side effects of the convictions as well, such as loss of U.S. government contract eligibility, benefit programs, and licenses. They may also suffer increased liability for taxes and face other lawsuits related to the conviction, such as those arising from provisions of the Racketeer-Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act. There may also be proceedings to void any agreements procured during the period of the corrupt activities.

Companies that are suppliers for the U.S. government or are regulated by or closely related to it (such as defense, pharmaceuticals, financial services, etc.) will feel huge ripples of a criminal FCPA conviction. It could affect their participation in U.S. funded medical insurance programs (Medicare, Medicaid, etc.), and could lose the opportunity to bid on defense contracts and other government contracts. Financial firms can also lose the opportunity to serve as pension fund advisors or broker-dealers, and may be required to forfeit licenses to sell insurance in this country.

Consequences limited to U.S. soil may be only the tip of the iceberg as well. Businesses in the countries that signed the OECD anti-bribery convention may find they are subject to criminal proceedings as well as civil proceedings in the U.S. as well as their own country of origin, not to mention the other jurisdictions where they may be guilty of corrupt acts. PE buyers will also find that the impact of these proceedings will affect management teams, and individuals involved in the acts or conspiracies can suffer many years of imprisonment and fines on both the civil and criminal levels. There may also be numerous collateral results that will affect the business negatively for many years.

M&A Deals and Risk Allocation Considerations

The wide scope and breadth of FCPA when coupled with lack of testing judicially, has created quite a few unusual challenges for sellers and buyers who could end up exposed to corrupt practices of their own or another’s business. For one, these sellers and buyers must identify potential risks and exposures, and evaluate those risks–however, this may be difficult to do for many reasons. Sellers and buyers have to negotiate these risks like they would any other business liability, and where there is a stock and merger agreement in progress these risks will determine much of the shape the distribution of risk will take.

However, even where the buyer can negotiate a good position with regard to FCPA exposure, there is still the collateral legal and financial risk associated with being part of any recorded business deal where fault may lie with a seller. Even if all the risk of FCPA liability is assumed by a seller, U.S. regulators may still charge both the seller and buyer of the corrupt business practice, especially if the buyer has a history of FCPA violations. Once a scheme for bribery or corrupt business is exposed, all benefits and commercial goods may be lost or at least significantly deteriorate. Truly, the best protection for a buyer may simply be to pay a lower price for the business.

Due Diligence and FCPA Regulations

PE, as other buyers, are interested in identifying and eliminating FCPA problems and other anti-corruption issues before the finalization of any purchase price or financial terms. The parties must create a due diligence plan and review it carefully to determine potential risks, as with any other potentially problematic deal.

Here are some things an effective FCPA plan for due diligences must account for:

1. The definitions of non-U.S. officials and benefits covered.
2. How FCPA applies to these officials and agents.
3. How the FCPA affecst acquisitions and mergers.
4. The liability and want of standards applicable to a parent company’s violation of bookkeeping and records requirements.
5. The increased exposure of the Internet and the resulting limits of protection by anti-bribery provisions.

Steps a PE sponsor should take as part of any due diligence program include:

1. Assessing the risk of FPCA violations in countries where the target business or subsidiaries reside or operate.

2. Analyzing the particular industry for possible disproportionate violations of FCPA regulations, such as defense contractors, natural resources, or pharmaceuticals.

3. Evaluating the risk of any people who are associated with the target company, such as unethical managers.

4. Carefully reviewing the internal audit reports and other investinations conducted, including by security, legal departments, and any other documents by other legal counsel of the target.

5. Identifying all senior officials elected in the country of the target company, and comparing those names with a list of people the company has paid money to.

6. Interviewing all managers and employees of the seller or target company that may have had any contact with influential officials.

7. Reviewing all reports, records, and analyses of audits prepared eternally, such as by accounting firms.

8. Hiring an investigation firm to review all risks and ways that the target company may have paid bribes.

Although these steps are designed to reveal any potential FCPA-related risks, the most important thing a buyer can do is inspect the target’s own FCPA compliance program. Even though a thorough and tough-minded program of compliance is the best way to fend off liability, they can reduce significantly the risk of financial liability arising from the activities of individuals within a normally-compliant company that may be paying corrupt monies to officials in other countries. In other words, the most effective and important thing for a buyer in assessing the target company is to review how seriously the target took its own FCPA-related risks and exposures before the M&A transaction talks by inspecting the target’s FCPA compliance program.